Wayne State College

Distance and Continuing Education

Self-Paced Courses: Print-Based or Online

Self-paced courses for educators were developed by Learners Edge, Inc., and contain a wealth of practical, proven strategies to improve teaching and student learning by creating relevant activities to be used in the classroom. These courses are offered in print-based or online format. A syllabus is available by contacting the Distance and Continuing Education Office.

Note: These courses are intended for certificate renewal or personal enrichment and are not applicable to a degree program.

Fully Wired: Understanding and Empowering Adolescents (3)       

This eye-opening course will explore the various changes occurring in adolescents’ brain and show teachers how to understand, communicate, and stay connected with these students.  With the arsenal of strategies discussed in this course, teachers can help their students learn to control impulses, manage erratic behavior, and cope with their changing bodies. Recommended for educators of grades 4-12. (EDU 565-00E2, PB/OL, 693)

Succeeding with the Struggling Student (3)

All teachers have students who struggle to learn. Many of these students have never been taught strategies that are compatible with the way they think and learn. Once we teach them the appropriate techniques, their learning problems diminish significantly. (EDU 565-00E4, PB/OL, 753)

Excelling in the Early Childhood Classroom (3)

Cutting edge research emphasizes the importance of stimulating a child’s brain long before that child enters kindergarten. Examine the implications of this research and explore the components of a successful early childhood classroom. Particular attention will be given to the important roles that music, art, language, and play have in the development of the neural networks from birth to age 5. (EDU 565-00E7, PB/OL, 910)

Brain Works: Better Teaching with the Brain in Mind (3)

Filled with the latest information on how the brain learns, this course will energize and inspire! Learn how to teach in a more meaningful, powerful manner. Explore the role of emotion, retention, windows of opportunity, the primacy-recency effect, and much more. Whether this is your first brain course or your 4th, there is much here for you! (EDU 565-00E9, PB/OL, 505)

Raise the Bar: Positive Interventions for Students Who Challenge Us (3)

Challenging behavior can certainly get in the way of academic progress, but there is hope! This course gives plenty of techniques and strategies for K-8 teachers to proactively assist students in achieving target behaviors through positive behavior intervention. By deconstructing the functions of the problem behaviors, educational professionals can address the root of a child’s issue instead of simply addressing the behavior. This course gives a solid road map for the philosophy behind positive behavior intervention systems (PBIS) while offering several different ways to get you (and your students) to your destination: appropriate behavior that is conducive to a positive learning environment. (EDU 565-00EA, PB/OL, 5849)

Empathy and Understanding: The New Tools for Students with Challenging Behaviors (3)

Ease your fear and frustration when faced with students who are difficult to reach and teach. In this course, featuring Dr. Greene’s book Lost at School, you will find the steps you need for connecting with challenging students. Break free from old mindsets and terminology like “at-risk students,” and empower yourself with the Collaborative and Proactive Solutions (CPS) model that teaches strategies for building and nurturing teacher-student relationships. Learn how to use the Assessment of Lagging Skills and Unresolved Problems (ALSUP) inventory to identify the issues in need of attention. Join us on this journey of empathy, problem solving and relationship building! (EDU 565-00EB, PB/OL, 5032)

PBIS 101: Positive Behavior Intervention Systems (3)

Positive Behavior Intervention Systems (PBIS) has taken hold in many schools throughout the nation, and implementation has led to positive changes in the way schools address behavior concerns.  This course introduces the concept of PBIS, and leads educators through the processes of setting up and implementing the school-wide framework through Tier 1, with action steps to determine readiness for the next two Tiers. We highly recommend this course to groups of education professionals who are interested in beginning the PBIS framework in their school or district. (EDU 565-00EC, PB/OL, 5850)

Reaching Young Readers: Improving Reading Skills K-3 (3)

At last, a reading course for primary teachers that incorporates the most recent research and relevant strategies.  Explore the five core instructional areas and how each affects student achievement: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.  Whether your students have special needs or show no apparent learning difficulties, this course will expand your repertoire of teaching strategies and help you put students on the road to literacy.  Recommended grades K-3. (EDU 565-00ED, PB/OL, 653)

The Challenging Student: Strategies for Early Childhood Classroom (3)

Created for early childhood education professionals, this course is filled with strategies designed to assess challenging behaviors, as well as ways to address those behaviors, and to plan appropriate interventions, curriculum and teaching practices. (EDU 565-00EE, PB/OL, 5838)

Instructional Strategies That Work (3)

This course explores instructional strategies that have proven to have a major impact on student achievement. Increase your skills and comfort level with the following strategies: cooperative learning, questioning techniques, visual tools, graphic organizers, structuring homework, helping students understand what they read, building students' vocabulary, improving note taking, and utilizing higher order thinking skills. (EDU 565-00EF, PB/OL, 704)

Differentiated Learning: How to Teach to Varying Ability Levels (3)

This course addresses an issue that every educator faces: How to effectively teach students who have widely different skill levels, interests, and learning styles. In this course, you will learn how to effectively coordinate your time, resources, and efforts so that learning is maximized for each student in your class. Learn how to take your specific curriculum and the particular student needs and design and teach successful lessons. Recommended grades K-9. (EDU 565-00EI, PB/OL, 717)

Successful Strategies for Literacy (3)

“The Sisters” will offer you concrete steps and examples to understand their innovative approach to literacy teaching and monitoring.  You will be introduced to the foundations of these strategies, along with tips and techniques to begin this approach from Day 1 of the school year.  Both books provide strong examples of structure that you can incorporate immediately as you build upon your students’ literacy skills.  You will learn ways to empower students to be independent learners as they navigate deliberate steps in literacy instruction at their own pace.  Through the use of a conference notebook, one-on-one conferences and self-guided practice, you will save time and energy by monitoring individual students in a set format.  This course may challenge the way you view literacy instruction, and will invigorate your overall approach in the classroom. (EDU 565-00EL, PB/OL, 5044) 

Effective Classroom Management: Discipline and Dignity (3)

This course will better prepare you to effectively manage students so that learning is maximized in your classroom. The approach advocated in this course (emphasizing the dignity and value of every student) has completely revolutionized the way countless schools and teachers across the country address discipline. Recommended grades K-9. (EDU 565-00EM, PB/OL, 737)

Teach Well, Learn Well: RTI (3)

Struggling to address learning difficulties prior to special education services? Learn about the innovative model that is sweeping the country, RTI.  Response to Intervention (RTI) assists in raising all student achievement and provides an alternative process for student identification, using proven methods and instructional tools/strategies to support the learner.  Learn how to implement RTI, assess students for early identification, and differentiate instruction for diverse learners.  This course is appropriate for general and special education teachers at the elementary level, as well as administrators. (EDU 565-00EN, PB/OL, 921)

Building Successful Readers in All Content Areas (3)

Tired of your students' eyes just glossing over the pages as they read? The strategies in the course text will make the teaching of reading a practical, achievable goal in every subject. This course contains over 40 proven strategies that help students develop their vocabularies, comprehend informational and narrative texts, and engage in meaningful discussions of what they read. Recommended for educators of grades 3-12. (EDU 565-00EO, PB/OL, 880)

What Great Teachers Do (3)

Discover the specific things that great teachers do that others do not. This course explores the beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, and interactions that form the fabric of life in the best classrooms and schools. Explore such issues as classroom management, testing, decision making, classroom relationships, and much more. (EDU 565-00EP, PB/OL, 855)

Parent Trap: Achieving Success with Difficult Parents and Difficult Situations (3)

Explore ways to establish positive, constructive relationships with parents of your students. Learn how to work with the most challenging parents in the most challenging situations, learn strategies to help deliver “less than positive” news, and build your credibility in the process. (EDU 565-00EQ, PB/OL, 859)

Achieving Success with English Language Learners (3)

Explore over 40 proven strategies that help students develop their English language skills in all subjects. This course addresses basic principles of teaching and assessing English learners, adaptations necessary in helping ELL students understand content, active participation by ELL students, and vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension strategies. (EDU 565-00ER, PB/OL, 842)

ADHD: Focusing, Learning, Training (3)

Prepare to gain a deeper understanding of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD), including diagnosis and specific behavioral interventions. Research-based, applicable methods for increasing appropriate behaviors and removing inappropriate behaviors will be addressed at length.  This course also provides relaxation and stress management techniques for you, the educator.  Appropriate for all grade levels. (EDU 565-00ET, PB/OL, 5027)

Caring for the Mental Health of Your Students (1)

This course explores the range of mental health issues that teachers face in classrooms today. Learn how to detect early warning signs of mental illnesses, along with suicide, chemical dependency, and substance abuse. Explore relevant classroom accommodations and instructional strategies so that students can achieve success in the classroom. Recommended for educators of grades 1-12. (EDU 565-00EU,  PB/OL, 854)

Assignment Homework: Where, When, and Why (3)

Examine the role homework has played in the culture of schooling over the years. Explore how such factors as family life, the media, and the “balance movement” have affected the homework controversy; and what research and educators’ common sense tell us about the effects of homework on student learning. View multiple perspectives on the topic—and do some deep thinking about how you approach the topic of homework.  Ultimately, this course will help you design homework that is more meaningful. (EDU 565-00EY, PB/OL, 5045)

Focus on Phonics and Effective Reading, Writing, and Spelling Instruction (3)

Go back to the basics with a fresh focus on phonics. Effective phonics instruction requires specific teaching and learning targets bolstered by understanding the history of reading development and research behind the phonics and whole-language approach. Through a review of reading fundamentals and direct phonics instruction, teachers will learn proven strategies for practice and repetition to support readers struggling with letter and word decoding automaticity. By investigating formative assessments for phonemic awareness and phonics, teachers will activate reading, writing and spelling tools and teaching strategies with an eye on student engagement for better overall reading comprehension and achievement. (EDU 565-00F1, PB/OL, 5030)

Victorious Vocabulary Instruction for Remarkable Reading (3)

Vocabulary development is an essential skill for reading and overall academic achievement, yet it’s a commonly neglected area of instruction. This course provides a review of research that supports daily vocabulary instruction using words selected from existing curriculum or any content area. Explicit, consistent instruction leads students to vocabulary growth and a greater love of language. Word mastery and confidence are achieved from daily routines that engage students with new words in the classroom community that promotes academic risk-taking. Planning, teaching and assessing components are covered for teachers who want to inspire their instruction with a love of words their students need to know. (EDU 565-00F2, PB/OL, 5038)

The Reading Fluency Toolbox (1)

Calling all teachers who want to upgrade their teacher toolbox with more strategies for supporting readers who struggle! Research shows increases in overall comprehension outcomes with improved reading fluency, which validates the need for direct fluency instruction. This course will guide teachers through all fluency components to incorporate new routines into daily literacy practices. By creating specific applications for fluency-building, teachers support individual students and can engage the whole class in fun fluency practice with games and activities. (EDU 565-00F3, PB/OL, 5042)

Reading Instruction for the Head and Heart (3)

Inspiring lifelong readers who engage in meaningful reading is every literacy teacher’s goal. This course guides teachers toward that goal by focusing on the heart of reading. Teachers will examine the characteristics of responsive, responsible, compassionate readers and engage in transformational thinking that pushes past “best” practices to “next” practices, to support 21st Century learners. Through a review of independent reading, whole-class novels, classroom conversations, the role of relevance, and more, teachers will be challenged to decide what they can do in their own classrooms and schools to inspire readers who make choices that connect to their head and heart. (EDU 565-00F4, PB/OL, 5009)

Think Like an Historian! Teaching Historical Investigations in Social Studies (3)

Learn how to help your students “think like historians” in this engaging course! Challenge students to consider relevant questions about the past, investigate sources to address these questions, and formulate their own evidence-based arguments. Discover how to use primary and secondary sources to explore key historical thinking concepts with your students, including causality, change and consistency over time, and multi-perspectivity. Filled with examples and sample units from the author’s own teaching experiences, you’ll learn how to bring these exciting historical investigations into your middle and high school classroom, and help your students develop universal critical thinking skills. When students actively engage in historical investigations—the way real historians do—they find that American history is not just the memorization of names and dates; it’s challenging and fun! (EDU 565-00F6, PB/OL, 5017)

Wholehearted Teaching: Reigniting Your Passion for the Teaching Profession (3)

In this inspiring course, teachers will learn ways to positively impact their students’ and colleagues’ lives. Educators will grow in their understanding of how to create a classroom and school community that focuses on HEART: happiness, engagement, alliances, risk, thought – and the necessity of connection. Through personal stories, activities, and reflection teachers will explore their personal and professional “heartprint” – and leave the course feeling empowered, energized and influential. (EDU 565-00F7, PB/OL, 5021)

Creating an Inclusive Classroom for Students with Exceptionalities (3)

Today’s classrooms include students with disabilities, English Language Learners, gifted students as well as other exceptionalities. This course will empower teachers to embrace inclusion with expertise and evidence-based instruction along with behavioral management practices to successfully support all students with exceptionalities! (EDU 565-00F8, PB/OL, 5029)

Mindsets and Math: Enjoyment and Achievement for All (3)

It is time for a mindset makeover in math! Unleash student potential by moving students from a “fixed” to a “growth” mindset about math, and watch them connect with math concepts head-on. After this course, educators will be able to create a classroom environment of growth mindset in math by: evaluating the math tasks and questions they ask, handling the way mistakes are dealt with, grouping appropriately, creating classroom norms, and applying the strategies to fulfill mathematics potential and engagement. (EDU 565-00F9, PB/OL, 5033)

Boosting Social Emotional Learning through Sport and Physical Education (3)

This exciting course for coaches and physical education teachers will provide an introduction to the concepts of building character, increasing community and developing growth mindsets in students and/or athletes. Participants will gain a better understanding of how they can impact social emotional learning and how they can increase the likelihood their students and/or athletes will meet goals. Filled with engaging activities and strategies to use with students, this course goes beyond sports and physical activity to building social emotional skills needed for life-long success. (EDU 565-00FD, PB/OL, 5055)

Vocabulary Instruction and Word Learning for Secondary Content Areas (3)

Vocabulary development is a critical skill for all academic achievement, yet it’s an often-overlooked part of instruction, especially in the content areas. This course offers a review of research to support vocabulary instruction using words carefully selected from existing curriculum and standards in any content area. Direct instruction leads students to vocabulary growth, improved comprehension of challenging texts, and word learning skills that will extend beyond high school. Word mastery and confidence is built from daily routines that engage students with new words in a classroom environment that promotes and practices word learning skills. (EDU 565-00FF, PB/OL, 5065)

Growing Gifts: Stories, Supports and Strategies for Teachers in Gifted Education (3)

Fill your files and energize your enthusiasm as you learn the latest about working with students identifies as gifted! In this engaging course, you will explore the dualities of giftedness, the attributes of students assessed at Twice Exceptional (2E), ideas for identifying giftedness in non-mainstream populations, and ways to guide students who struggle with social emotional issues. The exceptional course textbook When Gifted Kids Don’t Have All the Answers is packed with student stories, strategies and support for working with learners who are gifted. If you want to be sure your students not only survive, but thrive, in the world of gifted education, this is the course for you! (EDU 565-00FH, PB/OL, 5066)

Move, Grow, Play! Using Play to Teach and Learn (3)

Did you know that students who are running and jumping are learning the laws of physics? That learning about surface tension involves blowing bubbles? That children who are picking up cotton balls with tongs are developing their pincer grips? These are just a few examples of how children learn through play. Textbook author Lisa Murphy challenges us to ensure our professional practice focuses on what the research proves is the foundation of learning: play. In this inspiring course, you will learn ways to add the “Magnificent Seven” to your lessons, gather evidence that champions learning through play, and will return laughter, joy and play to your classroom! (EDU 565-00FI, PB/OL, 5057)

Teaching Students with Interrupted Formal Education: Compassion is Key (3)

Does your school have a large population of refugee students? Are you looking for ways to assist newcomers and decrease culture shock? This inspiring course addresses the complex task of teaching students with interrupted formal education. Educators will understand the interplay of students’ social and academic needs, English language learning and the importance of a strong school-student-family-community connection. Connecting research to practice, educators will have an opportunity to reflect on their current practices and ways they can provide a nurturing, motivating classroom and school environment to support students’ needs. (EDU 565-00FJ, PB/OL, 5020)

Improving Outcomes for Students in Poverty: The Difference Makers (3)

This strategy-based course will provide a solid base of information and provide ideas to disrupt the adverse effects of poverty for students. Participants will develop activities to build caring relationships with students based on mutual respect and trust. Additionally, they will develop action plans to incorporate their own biases and expectations and develop methods for ensuring equity in their practice. Participants will take time to thhnk about their professional accountability to ALL students and learn about the impacts of efficacy and self-awareness. This course is a must take for EVERY educator. (EDU 565-00FM, PB/OL, 5077)

Literacy and Learning (3)

Designed to provide a balanced approach to early childhood literacy, this course explores strategies for teaching oral language, vocabulary, phonological awareness, word recognition, comprehension, and writing skills. Learn ways to engage young learners through play and technology integration, as well as suggestions for how to connect with families and to encourage literacy at home. (EDU 565-00FS, PB/OL, 506)

Incorporating Mindfulness: Strategies to Encourge Student Focus and Awareness (2)

Discover how to share the power of mindfulness with students in this engaging class! Based in research and grounded in practical applications, this course explores how present-focus awareness can foster social and emotional learning, increase attention, and help students manage big emotions throughout the school day. Explore dimple, ready-to-implement activities to unlock the key benefits of mindfulness, including stress reduction, increased focus, positive self-concept, emotional control, and affirming relationships. Learn the first steps to develop your own classroom or school-wide mindfulness practice with expert tips, outreach ideas, and action plans. If you are ready to teach your students how to use mindfulness to build resiliency, focus, and well-being, we hope you will join us! (EDU 565-00P4, PB/OL, 5018)

Teach Like a Champ: Effective Strategies for an Engaged Classroom (3)

Take time to stop, reflect, and analyze why you run your classroom the way that you do. Are you spending too much time managing, and not enough time teaching? Are your students getting the most out of your instruction? This course will renew educators in the quest for efficient, effective and engaging teaching that demands the best of all students. Realign the focus to a flow of content and learning instead of housekeeping and maintaining order by utilizing techniques that speak to all aspects of instructional framework. Whether this is your first or your fifteenth year in the classroom, you will be enlightened and reminded why you are good at what you do, and how students can thrive in your space. (EDU 565-00P8, PB/OL, 5683)

Engaging Parents for Student Success (3)

Learn how engaging parents and students as your partners in learning will empower your students to achieve. Discover pro-engagement strategies, ways to foster participation, and how to motivate parents, students, and community members to work as a team to ensure student achievement and learning. This course will explore strategies to help you establish positive, constructive relationships with the parents of your students and is appropriate for teachers of all grade levels and subjects. (EDU 565-00PB, PB/OL, 5844)

Grief and Your Students: Honoring, Sharing, and Healing (1)

This course will provide strategies to help teachers deal with the sensitive topics of death, grief, and school-wide loss. Educators will be empowered with age-appropriate ways to communicate with students regarding their feelings, behaviors, and the outcomes instigated by grief and loss. Learn how to initiate and maintain communication, how to help students struggling with complicated grief, as well as ways to manage one’s own emotions when helping students. (EDU 565-00PC, PB/OL, 5845)

Leading Intentional Talk with Young Mathematics Students, Grades K-4  (3)

The need for students to develop deep understanding of mathematics concepts continues to gain national attention. Establishing a strong foundation of mathematics thinking at the early grades provides the spring board from which students can build higher order critical thinking and mathematics problem-solving skills in later grades. This course prepares teachers to engage students in meaningful conversations that will help develop their mathematical thinking. Teachers will learn how to move math talk to the next level - transitioning from asking students to share how they solve math problems to implementing a framework for planning and facilitating purposeful discussions that enrich and deepen student understanding. (EDU 565-00PI, PB/OL, 5852)

A Moving Body, A Thinking Brain (Grades PK-3) (3)

Educators will cultivate an in-depth understanding of the critical roles of movement and play in the healthy development of children. Teachers will learn through research based real-life examples, action-filled ideas, and best practices, all designed to help students learn and grow to their full potential. Learn how a moving child is a learning child in this colorfully captivating course. (EDU 565-00PJ, PB/OL, 5853)

Moving Math: How to Use Differentiated Mathematics Stations (3)

This course will equip teachers with the ability to support and guide their students in guided math. The topics covered in this course are practical and achievable for young learners. This course will guide educators to understand guided math strategies and how to make guided math run smoothly in your classroom. Some of the areas explored in the course include: sample lessons, anchor charts, guided math planning, ideas for assessment and lessons, and strategies for engaging students during math workshop time. (EDU 565-00PK, PB/OL, 5854)

Neurodiversity: A New Approach for Students with Special Needs (3)

Neurodiversity – a concept whose time has come – challenges educators to shift from a disability perspective to a diversity perspective, and to use strength-based strategies designed to help students with special needs be successful in life and in school. For regular and special educators, this course encourages educators to focus on the positive assets of students who are neurodiverse and neurotypical, and to understand how to support and provide the instruction they need. (EDU 565-00PL, PB/OL, 5855)

Strategies for Decreasing Teacher Burnout: A Resilience Revolution (3)

It’s time for teachers to put themselves first to ensure their best for students! This thought provoking and revolutionary course is a “must take” for all educators. Participants will learn the causes and impacts of teacher burnout, and more importantly, discover strategies to decrease it. Teachers will locate and create resources to educate themselves, colleagues and administrators on this epidemic in education. Beyond gaining deep understanding of how resilience can benefit the individual, educators will explore their own level of resilience and develop strategies for self-care. (EDU 565-00PZ, PB/OL, 5028)

Math Works: Teaching Math with the Brain in Mind (3)

Explore the latest brain research and its impact for teaching mathematics at all grade levels. The course will delve into the cognitive mechanisms for learning math and the environmental and developmental factors that contribute to math difficulties. Learn how to plan effective mathematics lessons with a host of brain-compatible strategies. (EDU 565-00S4, PB/OL, 970)

Making Content Accessible for Your English Language Learner (3)

As school demographics change, teachers are challenged to address the needs of an ever-expanding variety of English language learners. In this course, you will discover strategies, templates, and activities to build a toolkit for working with ELs in your classroom. Explore the importance of academic conversations and teaching academic language in your classroom while implementing different scaffolds, vocabulary, and background knowledge activities. Most of all, you will learn how to create a collaborative environment that focuses on advocacy for creating a positive learning environment for ALL students, while making the content more comprehensible for students who may struggle with language. (EDU 565-00S5, PB/OL, 5025)

Sticks and Stones: The No Bully Zone (3)

This course will help make your school/classroom a safer place for all students to learn. Explore the following areas: school-wide anti-bullying measures, problem solving dialogue, the role of the bystander, building staff-to-student connections, supporting and empowering the targets of bullies, and more. Discover new ways to reduce bullying, regardless of what level/subject you teach. (EDU 565-00S9, PB/OL, 712)

Across the Spectrum: Teaching Students with Autism (3)

Finally, a course specifically designed to help you work with students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Explore the following important components: characteristics and types of ASD, the role of assistive technology, intervention models, proven instructional approaches, parent involvement techniques, and available support services. (EDU 565-00SD, PB/OL, 776)

Building Comprehension in Primary Grades (3)

In this course, participants will explore numerous ways of teaching literacy strategies to primary students. The author approaches teaching literacy with the expectation that primary students can be taught comprehension strategies and learn to become thoughtful and independent readers. The text for this course walks the learner through a year of teaching literacy in the primary classroom. (EDU 565-00SF, PB/OL, 760)

Conferring with Young Writers (3)

Writing conferences are a strategic way to support and enhance writing skills in the youngest of writers.  This course gives educators a framework for conducting writing conferences with students using a clear, purposeful manner.  Learn effective record-keeping systems that allow you to match your mini lessons with your student’s writing needs; successful communication skills that bring out the best in your writers, and valuable techniques for tailoring conferences to the English Language Learner. Recommended grades Pre K-2. (EDU 565-00SI, PB/OL, 642)

What Great Middle School Teachers Do (3)

Ignite and rekindle your imagination and commitment as a middle school teacher.  In this course you will explore the high-performance middle school classroom, delving into research-based techniques for working with the middle school student.  Middle school teaming, pedagogy, advisory times and brain research will be addressed in this comprehensive course. (EDU 565-00SL, PB/OL, 968)

Refocus and Recharge: Strategies for Finding Balance in Teaching (3)

With the ever-increasing demands on teachers, the subject of teacher wellness is a timely and important one. This course explores a wealth of strategies teachers can enlist to attain professional and personal balance,k avoid teacher burn-out, and recharge. Explore such strategies as: how to manage stress, ways to be a part of the larger community, teaching with a sense of purpose, the importance of self-efficacy, positive engagement, and planning of one's time and energy. (EDU 565-00SY, PB/OL, 5792)